Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography 2008

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 51,209.2 sq km land: 51,197 sq km water: 12.2 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: total: 1,538 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 249 km, Serbia 357 km
Coastline: 20 km
Maritime claims: no data available
Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain: mountains and valleys
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 19.61% permanent crops: 1.89% other: 78.5% (2005)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources: 37.5 cu km (2003)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

NOTE: The geography information regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina on this page is re-published from the 2008 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography 2008 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography 2008 should be addressed to the CIA.